Medlane Bibliography
Return to: Medlane Overview || Medlane Schema || XMLMARC
View the: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources
General XML XML StandardsXML and CatalogingXML Storage
and Retrieval
XML SoftwareDigital Librarianship
General XML ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Banerjee, Kyle. How Does XML Help Libraries? Computers in Libraries 2002 Sep; 22(8):30-4.
    States that XML represents a major step forward in searching many different kinds of information in a single query. Presents a moderate view emphasizing hype vs. reality.
  • Bradley, Neil. The XML companion. Addison-Wesley, 2000. (Technical orientation).
  • Bryan, Martin. An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML). Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 1998 Oct/Nov; 25(1):11-4.
  • Byrne, Tony. The Siren Song of Structure: Heeding the Call of Reusability. EContent 2002 Sep; 25(9):16-20,22-3.
    Business-oriented introduction to providing structure via XML to content; includes small glossary and example of "chunking" a document for reusability.
  • Desmarais, Norman. The ABCs of XML: the librarian's guide to the eXtenstible Markup Language, 2000.
  • Flynn, Peter. Frequently asked questions about the Extensible Markup Language: the XML FAQ. Online:
  • Harold, Elliotte Rusty. XML Bible. IDG Books Worldwide, 1999 (Good overview and practical guide).
  • Jaenicke, Coco. XML: extensibility or fragmentation?. XML Journal 2000; 1(3):56-7. "Eliminate the coercion from e-commerce ... and fragmentation becomes a nonissue."
  • O'Reilly & Associates. XML.COM. (News, resource guide, product lists, and weekly features).
  • Randall, Sara L. Using XML to manage heterogeneous data. Library High Tech News 2002; 19(5):12-5.
    Discusses role of XML at ILS vendor: Endeavor Information Systems.
  • Rhyno, Art. Is XML in Your Future? Serials Librarian 2002; 42(1/2):143-53.
    A succinct overview of the many reasons XML is significant for library services. "Perhaps no other library standard may be impacted as dramatically by XML as MARC."
  • Sharpe, Bruce. The Spell of XML: the next Internet revolution. XML Journal. 2000; 1(2):18-20,22-5.
  • Trippe, Bill. XML Hits the Big Time: Major Database Players Get into XML. EContent 2002 Sep; 25(9):24-7,30.
    Business-oriented account of the growth of XML in contrast with relational databases and other changes in the landscape. Illustrates IBM's Xperanto.
  • XML4LIB. An email discussion list. Online:
    Discussions involve everything from general XML questions to how XML is being used in the library environment. An archive is available.
XML Standards ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Data Documentation Initiative (An effort to establish an international criterion and methodology for the content, presentation, transport, and preservation of "metadata" about datasets in the social and behavioral sciences).
  • DuCharme, Robert. Replace DTDs? Why? XML Journal 2000; 1(1):40-1. (A history of DTDs and replacement candidates).
  • Hogan, Mike. XML and data interchange. XML Journal 2000; 1(2):54,56. Discusses addressing multiple dialects of XML (DTDs) with XSLT and XML script from Decisionware.
  • Kumar, Ram. XML standards for customer information quality management. XML Journal 2000; 1(3):40-2, 44-5. (Includes discussion of NAML (Name and Address Markup Language) and CIML (Customer Identity Markup Language)).
  • Kumaran S, Ilango. The Specification for the Metadata Interchange format. XML Journal 2000; 1(1):58,60. (Discusses XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) format for open-interchange).
  • Mikula, Norbert. Schemas take DTDs to the next level. XML Magazine 1999/2000 winter; 1(1):?
  • Moller, Anders and Schwartzbach, Michael. The XML Revolution: Technologies for the Future Web. A 130+ page slide presentation on the many facets of XML (XML, XSL, XSLT, XLink, XPath, XML-QL). Includes a section on their own DSD, Document Structure Description language (and other XML schema languages as well).
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.). Astronomical Data Center. ADC XML resources page (Includes the ADC's dataset DTD).
  • Ricker, Jeff. An Approach to representing EDI in XML. XML Journal 2000; 1(2):36-8. (An intermediate format using one DTD for all EDI documents. States that in 18-36 months XML will meet or exceed existing EDI standards).
  • Simeonov, Simeon. The Evolution of XML protocols: charting recent advances in the XML standards space. XML Journal 2000; 1(3):24-7.
  • XEDI (pronounced zee' dee) An approach to XML-EDI. Provides a syntax for representing X12 and EDIFACT semantics."

XML and Cataloging ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Ayres, F.H. Time for change: a new approach to cataloguing concepts. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 1999; 28(2):3-16.
  • Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control Confronting the Challenges of Networked Resources and the Web. XML is mentioned in several of the conference papers (available in full-text online).
  • Cataloging the Web: Metadata, AACR, and MARC 21. Scarecrow Press, 2002.
    Based on an ALCTS Preconference to ALA, 2000.
  • Caplan, Priscilla. "Metadata for All Librarians" American Library Association, 2003 [incomplete citation]
  • Carvalho, Joaquim de. XML and Bibliographic Data: the TVS (Transport, Validation and Services) Model. 2002.
    "The key point in this approach is that by specifying requirements for XML usage at these three levels, in an articulated but distinct way, a much needed clarification about the role of XML in bibliographic systems can be achieved."
    Details and examples:
  • Cataloguer's Toolbox Technical standards for identification and communication of electronic bibliographic data and metadata. Has an XML section in addition to several other interesting sections.
  • Chen, Ya-ning. An Application Practice of the IFLA FRBR Model: A Metadata Case Study for the National Palace Museum. Proceedings of the ... ASIST Annual Meeting 2002; 39:181-193.
    Practical use of FRBR model for Chinese painting and calligraphy in Taipei. Identifies issues with relationships, particularly splitting subjects into person and place authority files and need for a temporal metadata authority file, granularity, and other problems.
  • Eichmann, Heiner. Heiner Eichmann's GEDCOM 5.5 Sample Page: ANSEL to Unicode conversion. Online: Discusses issues related to converting the ANSEL character set (used by libraries for their bibliographic records) into Unicode. Includes conversion tables.
  • Fiander, David J. Applying XML to the Bibliographic Description. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 33(2):17-28.
    Discusses three options for changing from MARC to XML: "transliteration" literally mapping existing MARC structure as LC has done; using AACR2 structure and describe it in XML; or taking stock of recent research into the underlying descriptive codes before creating an XML structure. Appears to prefer the third approach, but states that it is "clearly not feasible at this time" due to the difficulty of converting existing current data to a new format.
  • Fink, Eleanor E. Testing the Flexibility of the MARC Format. Visual Resources 1988 4:373-88.
  • Goosens, P. Hierarchical relationships in bibliographic descriptions: problem analysis. (In: Hierarchical relationships in bibliographic descriptions. Essen: Gesamthochschulbibliotek Essen, 1982. p. 13-128).
  • Heaney, Michael. Object-oriented cataloging. Information Technology and Libraries 1995 Sep; 14(3):135-53. (Proposes major revisions to MARC and states that AACR2 is an evolutionary blind alley; calls for AACR3 to be an object-oriented cataloging code).
  • IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records. Functional requirements of bibliographic records : final report Munchen: K.G. Saur, 1998.
  • Johnson, Bruce Chr. XML and MARC: which is "right"? (Reprinted here with the permission of Haworth Press). Published in Cataloging & classification quarterly 2001; 32:(1):81-90. Explores recent discussions about the appropriate mark-up conventions for library information intended for use on the World Wide Web, the usefulness of MARC, and whether conversion to XML is indicated.
  • Joint Steering Committee for Revision of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR
  • Lam, Kai-Tat. XML Name Access Control Metadata Repository: An Experiment at HKUST Library. 2002 Oct. 2.
    Investigates the advantages of using XML instead of MARC for an authority file of Chinese authors, proposing establishing such a shared repository.
  • Le Boeuf, Patrick. Brave New FRBR World. [2003]
    Provides an excellent overview of FRBR, FRANAR, and friends and the related issues surrounding them and related efforts as they relate to establishing an international cataloging code. Presented at the First IFLA Meeting of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code; for list of additional papers see:
  • Leazer, Gregory H. Bibliographic families in the library catalog: a qualitative analysis and grounded theory. Library Resources & Technical Services 1999 Oct; 43(4):191-212.
  • Library of Congress. Network Development & MARC Standards Office. Encoded Archival Description (EAD) (SGML encoding for archival finding aids)
  • Library of Congress. Network Development and MARC Standards Office. MARC DTDs (Document Type Definitions This is a literal mapping of the MARC format to SGML and was found to be too cumbersome for the XMLMARC project.
  • McDonough, J. P. SGML and the USMARC standard applying markup to bibliographic data. Technical Services Quarterly 1998; 15(3)21-33.
  • Miller, Dick R. Bibliographic Access Management at Lane Medical Library: Fin de Millennium Experimentation and Bruised Edge Innovation (Reprinted here with the permission of Haworth Press). A survey of four aspects of bibliographic management at Lane Medical Library. Discusses the potential for a more flexible integration and deployment of traditional and digital library resources focused on domain specific user needs.
  • Miller, Dick R. Maintaining Standards without Excessive Standardization. MLA 1995 Washington, D.C. text ( powerpoint slides (
  • Miller, Dick R. XML: libraries' strategic opportunity In English ( Library journal. NetConnect supplement. 2000 summer; 125(suppl):16-9. Chinese translation ( Korean translation (
  • Ortiz-Repiso, Virginia. Web-based OPACs: between tradition and innovation. Information Technology and Libraries 1999 Jun; 18(2):68-77. (From Spain; includes discussion of XML/MARC; 37 refs.)
  • Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. XML and the future of digital libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship 1998 Jul; 24(4):314-7.
XML Storage and Retrieval ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Accomazzi, A. The NASA Astrophysics Data System. Architecture. Section 2.2: Data representation (Explains why they started to reformat all of their bibliographic records as XML documents).
  • Eichhorn, G. The NASA Astrophysics Data System: the search engine and its user interface
  • Evdemon, John. Eliminating redundancy in XML using ID/IDRF. XML J 2000; 1(4):50-1. "Using XML to define data hierarcically can produce highly redundant elements." Provides a method for mixing hierarchical and relational techniques within the same document.
  • Li, Ying, Miller, Dick, and Buttner, Mary. Bibliographic data mining: automatically building component part records for e-journal articles on the Internet. Journal of Internet Cataloging : The International Quarterly of Digital Organization, Classification & Access 2002; 5(1)29-41 (ISSN=1091-1387).
  • North, Ken. XML and databases: there's too much confusion! XML Journal 2000; 1(2):26-8,30. (Discusses problems with version control, authentication, authorization, searching, and data volume and XML for publishing (including data to browsers) and data integration (for computer consumption). Cites NLM's work).
  • Sagar, Agit. XML, RDBMS, and OODBMS: peaceful coexistence? XML Journal 2000; 1(2):52-3. (XML can provide a bridge between relational and object-oriented databases for data persistence and recovery).
  • XML:DB is a new group formed to promote standards in the XML database industry. An XML database is defined as an object-oriented database with an XML layer, a native XML database (hierarchical), or, by "stretching the definition a little," as a relational database with an XML mapping layer on top.
XML Software ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources


  • Clarke, Kevin S. Managing MARC with Open Source Software. Lita Guide 2002; 9(3):30-44.
    Covers XMLMARC,, and James.
  • Breeding, Marshall. The Open source ILS: still only a distant possibility. Inf Technol Libr 2002 Mar; 21(1):16-8.
  • Bretthauer, David. Open source software: a history. Inf Technol Libr 2002 Mar; 21(1):3-10.
  • Bretthauer, David. Open source software in libraries. Library High Tech News 2001 Jun: 8-9.
  • Bretthauer, David. Open source software in libraries: an update. Library High Tech News 2002 Jun: 20-2.
  • Coyle, Karen. Open source, open standards. Inf Technol Libr 2002 Mar; 21(1):33-6.
  • Highsmith, Anne. MARC it your way: Inf Technol Libr 2002 Mar; 21(1):19-25.
  • Morgan, Eric Lease. Open Source Software in Libraries. LITA Guide 2002; 9(1):7-18.
    Discusses definition of OSS, the gift culture, and an overview and rationale for the philosophy/process.
  • Morgan, Eric Lease. Possibilities for open source software in libraries. Inf Technol Libr 2002 Mar; 21(1):12-5.
  • the semantic web community portal.
    Includes information on XML, semantics, ontologies, and inference engines.

  • Apache XML Project : Aims to provide commercial-quality standards-based XML solutions that are developed in an open and cooperative fashion, feedback to standards bodies from an implementation perspective, etc. Includes a parser for XML, an XSLT engine, and a framework for XML based web publishing.
  • Basedow, Mark. MARC Template Library. Online:
    A C++ library similiar to Bas Peters' JAMES, a Java MARC library.
  • BiblioML Project: An XML application for bibliographic records, based on the Unimarc Bibliographic Format. An XML-based format for the interchange of UNIMARC bibliographic records between applications. From an agency of the French government.
  • Castor : "the shortest path between Java[tm] objects, XML documents, SQL tables and LDAP directories."
  • FatDog's XML Query Engine : Free for individual use, but commercially sold to organizations/businesses.
  • HTML-Kit : a full featured HTML, XML, XHTML editor whose plugin architecture allows modules for a variety of XML languages to be incorporated (WML, XSLT, etc.) HTML-Kit uses HTML Tidy for XML and HTML cleanup.
  • Infozone/Ozone : A Java database with XML capabilities (Currently talking about joining the Apache Group).
  • Open Source Digital Library System : A community centered at the University of Arizona Library dedicated to creating a next-generation integrated library system utilizing XML.
  • Open Source Software for Librarians (OSS4LIB) The preeminent open source library software site.
  • Oracle 9i : Relational database that includes XDK, an XML development kit, and iFS, Oracle's Internet File System.
  • Peters, Bas. MARC4J. Online:
    Used to be named JAMES (Java MARC Events). Exposes MARC records to the SAX interface so that they can efficiently be processed and relevant information extracted.

Digital Librarianship ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Ayres, F. H. Authority control simply does not work. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(2):49-59.
  • Baruth, Barbara. Missing pieces that fill in the academic library puzzle: cutting-edge technologies can assure our place in the big picture. American Libararies 2002 Jun/Jul; 33(6):58-60,62-3.
    "If we drift apart from each other and the larger information community, we may end up stranded on a dead-end road when that killer application rolls down the XML highway." Cites: XML: Libraries' Strategic Opportunity.
  • EDItEUR. Co-ordinating the development, promotion and implementation of Electronic Commerce (EDI) in the book and serials sectors. Their ONIX product includes an XML DTD. Note that EDItEUR and NISO have established a Joint Working Party to explore the development of a common standard format for the exchange of serials subscription information [2002-11-04]
  • Hodge, Gail. Systems of knowledge organization for digital libraries: beyond traditional authority files. Digital Library Federation, Apr. 2000. Discusses knowledge organization systems (KOS), which encompass all types of schemes for organizing information and promoting knowledge management.
  • Hudgins, Jean. Getting mileage out of metadata: applications for the library. American Library Association, 1999.
  • Jacso, Peter. XML and Digital Librarians (Digital Librarianship Column). Computers in Libraries 2002 Sep; 22(8):46-9.
    States that "XML is here to enhance MARC, not to replace it". References some open source resources for working with XML.
  • Landesman, Betty. What is XML? Library Hi Tech News 2002 Sep/Oct; 19(8):28-30.
    Summarizes the day-long ALA preconference sponsored by LITA.
  • Li, Ying. Bibliographic data mining: automatically building component part records for e-journal articles on the Internet. Journal of Internet Cataloging 2002; 5(1):29-41.
  • Metamap.
    "The MetaMap is a pedagogical graphic which takes the form of a subway map. Its aim is to help the information science community to understand metadata standards, sets, and initiatives of interest in this area." Uses SVG.
  • Miller, David P. Out from under: form/genre access in LCSH. Cat Class Q. 2000; 29(1/2):169-88. Questions whether a general purpose subject vocabulary should handle the full spectrum of form/genre access as well.
  • Netherlands Institute for Scientific Information Services. Xtensible Past [pilot project]. <2003>.
    Aims to explore the possibilities of XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and OAI (Open Archives Initiative) for providing better access to and sharing of digital data collections by researchers, and to investigate XML as a new strategy for the long-term preservation of research data.
  • Pace, Andrew K. The Ultimate Digital Library: Where the New Information Players Meet. American Library Association, 2003.
    Addresses relationships between profit and nonprofit organizations.
  • Ragon, Bart. Castles Made of Sand: Building Sustainable Digitezed Collections Using XML. Computers in Libraries 2003 June; 23(6):10-2,63-4.
    Describes the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library's project using TEI and stresses persistence and interoperability via XML.
  • Reuben, Elizabeth. Migrating Records from Proprietary Software to RTF, HTML, and XML. Computers in Libraries 2003 June; 23(6):30-3.
    Describes an Austrian project to rescue content from a no longer supported proprietary system (Epublish) and migrate it to XML.
  • Tennant, Roy, ed. XML in Libraries. Neal-Schumann, 2002.
    Includes 13 applications used in libraries.
  • Vellucci, Sherry L. Metadata and authority control. Library Resources & Technical Services 2000 Jan.; 44(1):33-43.
  • Wool, Gregory. Filing and precoordination: how subject headings are displayed in online catalogs and why it matters. Cat Class Q. 2000; 29(1/2):91-106. Includes observation that postcoordination has become more widespread and entrenched.
Selectd XML Applications in Libraries

  • University of Windsor's Infobridge (Art Rhyno)
Uses Google's SOAP interface to suggest alternate catalog searches when zero hits in Voyager catalog search. Try this misspelling search: Also note the "Show Map" feature which embeds a link the OPAC labels which searches a call no. to display an SVG map of the shelving location. This is a good example of using XML to "beat the system" so to speak.

  • State University of New York at Buffalo
Experimental native XML catalog containing over 2 million records using TeXtML from TextML from IXIASOFT.
Illustrates that scale is not a problem. Interesting report on this document approach versus the traditional ILS:
Ludwig, Mark. An XML Document Repository: A New Home for Univerity at Buffalo, Library Systems. Library Hi Tech News 2003; 20(6):32-4.
Mentions XMLMARC-lite as based on Lane's XMLMARC.

  • State University of New York at Cortland
Coombs, Karen A. Reaching the crossroads of two lists for periodicals holdings. Computers in Libraries 2004 Jan; 24(1):14-6,18,20.
Featured case study of using XML and XSL to combine print and digital serials lists using XML, including why the data was not first imported into a database for combination. Demonstrates XML's compatibility with a variety of platforms and environments.

  • National Library of Medicine
Uses XML in the NLM Gateway and PubMed with millions of citations stored in Oracle.

ControlData Concept Language Object Work Being Place Organization Event Time String Relationship
General Schema ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

Reorganization in Progress

  • International Council of Museums. International Committee for Documentation. The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM). 2003.
    Provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage documentation. This important ontology developed over 10 years provides a basis for individual schemas of archives, libraries, and museums to adher wholly or partially in order to achieve interoperability. Papers emphasizing sharing from a 2003 Symposium are due to be posted on this website.
  • Library of Congress. MARCXML: MARC 21 XML Schema. Online:
    A literal schema for MARC records that allows the transformation of MARC into XML and back into MARC again.
  • Miller, Dick R. Adding Luster to Librarianship: XML as an Enabling Technology. MLGSCA/NCNMLG Joint Meeting January 31, 2002.
    Includes first overview of Medlane Project's "principal elements," which differ somewhat from XOBIS schema.
  • Miller, Dick R. XOBIS – an Experimental Schema for Unifying Bibliographic and Authority Records. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2004 (submitted)
  • National Library of Medicine (U.S.). Archiving and Interchange DTD. 2003.
    NLM has done it again! Announces the Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD. Defines XML elements for describing fulltext and graphical content of journal articles and non-article material such as letters, editorials, etc. for all disciplines (not just the life sciences). This covers another significant chuck of the digital landscape, joining NLM's family of DTDs.
Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records (FRBR)
More on FRBR in other parts of this bibliography.

  • Le Boeuf, Patrick. FRBR and further. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(4):15-52.
    Includes compilation of comments on Functional requirements of bibliographic records.
  • Denton, William. FRBR and Fundamental Cataloging Rules. 2003 May.
    Useful student paper on FRBR principles related to a succinct history of cataloging and practicalities of catalog usage.
ControlData ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • First cite here

Concept (Topic/Category) ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Chan, Lois Mai. A Faceted Approach to Subject Data in the Dublin Core Metadata Record. Journal of Internet Cataloging 2001; 4(1/2):35-47.
  • Hayes, Susan M. Use of popular and literary criticism in providing subject access to imaginative literature. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(4):71-97.
    A subject specific international classification system for iconographic research and the documentation of images (visual documents). Contrasted with controlled vocabulary.
  • Marshall, Linnea. Specific and Generic Subject Headings: Increasing Subject Access to Library Materials. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2003; 36(2):59-87.
    Supports the case for adding generic subject headings in addition to specific ones to improve recall.
  • OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Office of Research. FAST: Faceted Application of Subject Terminology.
    This Project is developing a new subject heading schema based on LCSH suitable for metadata which is easier to use, understand, and maintain. It separates topical, geographic, form, and period facets, as well as Personal Names, Corporate Names, Conferences/Meetings, and Uniform Titles.
  • O’Neill, Edward T. Form Subdivisions: Their Identification and Use in LCSH. Library Resources & Technical Services [in press].
    Available on FAST site above.
  • Ostrove, Geraldine E. Music subject cataloging and form/genre implementation at the Library of Congress. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(2):91-106.
  • Addresses difficulties in delineating topic and form.
  • Ruiz-Perez, R. Consequences of applying cataloguing codes for author entries to the Spanish National Library online catalogs. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(3):31-55.
  • Interesting categories of authorship discussion.
Precoordination or Postcoordination?
Special thanx to Michael Rissinger for providing these references.

  • Azubuike, Abraham A. Document Subject Matrix as a Factor of Precision in Computerized Information Retrieval Systems. Quarterly Bulletin of the International Association of Agricultural Librarians and Documentalists 1990; 35(2):81-5.
  • Bodoff, David. Partial Coordination. I, The Best of Pre-Coordination and Post-Coordination. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 1998 Dec; 49(14):1254-69.
  • Harter, Stephen P. Detrimental Effects of Searching with Precoordinated Terms. Online Review 1988 Aug; 12:205-10.
  • Kambil, Ajit. Partial Coordination. II, A Preliminary Evaluation and Failure Analysis. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 1998 Dec; 49(14):1270-82.
  • Svenonius, Elaine. Praekoordination-- Ja oder Nein? Zeitschrift fuer Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie 1994 May/Jun:279-96.
  • Weinberg, Bella Hass. Why Postcoordination Fails the Searcher. Indexer 1995 Apr:155-9.
  • Wool, Gregory J. Filing and Precoordination: How Subject Headings are Displayed in Online Catalogs and Why it Matters. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2000; 29(1/2):91-106.

Language ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • First cite here

Object ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Blackaby, James R. The Revised Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging: A Revised and Expanded Edition of Robert G. Chenhall's System for Classifying Man-Made Objects. Nashville, TN, American Association for State and Local History, 1988.
  • British Museum Object Names Thesaurus.
    Uses singular terms generally. Excellent list for inanimate objects. Uses coordinate approach, e.g. replica, cup or toy, arrow, to reflect dual aspects. Artefact has been used to denote worked items which cannot be identified as specific objects. Delineates fragments, sets, models, replicas, remains, samples, equipments, textiles, etc.
  • International Council of Museums. International Committee for Documentation. International Guidelines for Museum Object Information: The CIDOC Information Categories
    Note especially the Information Groups and Categories section.
  • J. Paul Getty Trust. Art & Architecture Thesaurus Browser.
    A structured vocabulary to improve access to information about art, architecture, and material culture. Consists of various relationships and facets, e.g.: The Materials facet deals with physical substances, whether naturally or synthetically derived. The Objects facet encompasses those discrete tangible or visible things that are inanimate and produced by human endeavor. Other facets are: Associated Concepts, Physical Attributes, Styles and Periods, Agents (people, groups, and organizations), and Activities.
  • Zeng, Marcia Lei. Metadata Elements for Object Description and Representation: A Case Report from a Digitized Historical Fashion Collection Project.
    Comparison of using MARC, Dublin Core, and VRA Core Categories, and found that a modified VRA metadata format was most appropriate for cataloging fashion objects.

Work ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Baca, Martha. A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Metadata for Art Objects and Their Visual Surrogates. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services and Collections 2002; 10(20):131-8.
    Transcribed from presentation given in 2000. Contrasts differences in MARC, CDWA (Categories for the Description of Works of Art), VRA (Visual Resources Association) Core Categories, and DC (Dublin Core). Also, compares naming of museums on their Websites.
  • Beall, Jeffrey. Publishers' Errors Make Catalogers [sic]: an Analysis of the Error Indicators [sic] and [i.e.] in Cataloging. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(3):87-107.
    Salient to title element and nonfiling character issue.
  • Bennett, Rick. The Concept of a Work in WorldCat: An Application of FRBR. Library Collections, Acquisitions, and Technical Services 2003 spring; 27(1):?
    WorldCat includes a relatively small number of complex works which would benefit from the focused application of FRBR.
  • Bowman, J. H. Sic Catalog Syndrome: Title Page Transcription as a Barrier to Retrieval. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(1):39-54.
    A multi-database review of the impact of corrections in titles on title searching.
  • Smiraglia, Richard P. The Nature of "a Work": implications for the organization of knowledge. Scarecrow Press, 2001.
  • Smiraglia, Richard P., ed. Works as Entities for Information Retrieval. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2002; 33(3/4).
    Includes the editor's identification and characterization of four sets of definitions:
    1) FRBR, 2) Carlyle, Yee, and Svenonius' work and superwork, 3) Leazer and Furner's textual identity networks, and 4) Smiraglia's based on obervation.
  • Smith, Lynn S. Practical approach to serials cataloging. Appendix C, Generic titles. 1978:366-71. [Later list available?]
Being ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Blum, Stanley. Integrating Bio-Collection Databases: Metadata in Natural History Museums. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services and Collections 2002; 10(17):113-7.
    Transcribed from presentation given in 2000. Discusses the "Darwin Core" and taxonomic data, including the ASC (Association of Systematics Collections) model. Notes role of Place collected as related to specimens and value of consolidated searching.
  • Calvo, Antonio. Structuring biographical data in EAD with the Nomen DTD. OCLC Systems & Services 2001; 17(4):187-99.
  • Ruiz-Perez, R. Consequences of applying cataloguing codes for author entries to the Spanish National Library online catalogs. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 32(3):31-55.
    Interesting categories of authorship discussion.
  • Ruiz-Perez, R. Spanish personal name variations in national and international biomedical databases: implications for information retrieval and bibliometric studies. Journal of the Medical Library Association 2002 Oct; 90(4):411-30.
    Compares treatment of personal name entries in MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and Indice Medico Espanol (IME), highlighting variations and how these and errors undermine the usefulness of the databases in author retrieval.

Place ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. Version 2.0.
    Includes equivalence, polyhierarchical, and associative relationships. Also, associates start/end dates with textual note dates and used controlled, repeatable type values. Includes longitude and latitude.
  • Kowall, Kimberly C. Tapping the Web for GIS and Mapping Technologies: For All Levels of Libraries and Users. Information Technology and Libraries 2002 Sep; 21(3):109-14.
    General overview; not XML-specific.
  • Nuessli, Christos. Periodical historical atlas of Europe. Rev. ed. 7th update on the Web. Sept. 2001.
    Depicts the states as of 1st of each year. Excellent resource for investigating sequences of Place names over Time and relationships of European countries.
  • O'Neill, Tom. Saving Places. National Geographic 2002 Oct; 202(4):58-63.
    Overview of 730 World Heritage sites.
  • Poll, Julia. A Question of Perspective: Assigning Library of Congress Subject Headings to Classical Literature and Ancient History. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2001; 33(1):51-61.
    Notable for its emphasis on problems associated with limitations in policy for assigning Place (name changes), Time (subdivision covering 2000 years), and Concept (change in meaning over time) headings, which result in anachronisms.
  • Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs).
    The ZCTA correlates land areas with postal codes. ZCTAs are generalized area representations of U.S. Postal Service (USPS) ZIP Code service areas.
Organization ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Jin, Qiang. Comparing and Evaluating Corporate Names in the National Authority File (LC NAF) on OCLC and on the Web. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 2003; 36(2):21-30.
    This comparative study of variation in corporate names (100 cases) from three sources found that the NAF form of 25% differ from that used on official corporate Web pages.

Event ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • First cite here

Time ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • A Matter of Time (Single-Topic Issue) Scientific American 2002 Sep; 287(3).
    Provides many perspectives on time, including its perception, measurement, clocks, cultural aspects, biological aspects.
  • Heaney, Michael. Time is of the essence: some thoughts occasioned by the papers contributed to theInternational Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR. Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1997.
  • Jajko, Edward A. Cataloging of Middle Eastern material. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 1993; 17(1/2):133-47. Includes discussion of transliteration and dating problems.
  • Powell, Tammy. Tracking Meaning Over Time in the UMLS Metathesaurus, 2002.
    Discusses management of concepts in NLM's Unified Medical Language System, including the persistence of Concept Unique Identifiers (CUI) in order to maintain relationships between multiple thesauri as terms are deleted or changed over time. Patient records are cited as an example of needing to retain obsolete terminology in order to note change the original diagnosis. Also discusses issues in mapping between vocabularies including missed synonymy.

String (Lexical) ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • McFedries, Paul. The Word Spy.
    Devoted to recently coined words, existing words that have enjoyed a recent renaissance, and older words that are being used in new ways.
  • Robertson, William O. Quantifying the Meanings of Words. JAMA 1983 May 20; 249(19):2631-2.
  • Specialist Lexicon goes here.
  • Wordsmyth Educational Dictionary-Thesaurus (WEDT).
    An American English dictionary with an integrated thesaurus. Includes exact, word from phrase, and fuzzy searches, and advanced search features. Allows printing customized glossaries.

Relationship ReferencesReturn to: General XML Resources || Medlane Schema Resources

  • Bean, Carol A., ed. Relationships in the organization of knowledge. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
    Excellent overview.
  • Goosens, P. Hierarchical relationships in bibliographic descriptions: problem analysis. (In: Hierarchical relationships in bibliographic descriptions. Essen: Gesamthochschulbibliotek Essen, 1982. p. 13-128).
  • O'Neill, Edward T. FRBR: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Application of the Entity-Relationship Model to Humphry Clinker. Library Resources & Technical Services 2002 Oct; 46(4):150-9.
    Applies to XOBIS' compositional-compositional relationships and the Versions element.
  • Reynolds, Regina. ISSN: Link and Cross-Link for Data and Metadata. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services and Collections 2002; 10(6):35-40.
    Transcribed from presentation given in 2000. Discusses hook to holdings, displaying family trees of serials, etc. based on ISSN.
  • TAP KB.
    An experimental knowledge base about people (musicians, actors, sports figures, etc.), places, products, etc. Categorizes information and includes some relationships, e.g. Places: Paris is a City in France a County and has a CapitalCity relationship. Resource > Tangible > Place > City > CityParis,_France; hasCapitalCityOf : CountryFrance. Many of the categories represent Object, Work, Being, Organization, Place, with fewer examples of Concept, although XOBIS Category relationship to Concept used extensively.
  • Tillett, Barbara B. A Taxonomy of Bibliographic Relationships. Library Resources & Technical Services 1991; 35(2):150–8.
  • Tillett, Barbara B. Bibliographic Relationships: An Empirical Study of the LC Machine-Readable Records. Library Resources & Technical Services 1992; 36(2):162–88.
  • Vellucci, Sherry L. Uniform Titles as Linking Devices. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 1990; 12(1):35-62.